BOWOOSS-summer pavillonVoltar à lista de projetos
BOWOOSS as a summer pavillion unifies traditional timber construction typology and computer aided, filigranous lightweight technologies. The result is a craftsmen-built volumetric architecture, realized within a reseach project on biomimicry at the School of Architecture Saar, SAS,
in Saarbruecken, Germany. BOWOOSS is a showcase of interdisciplinary project research among the participating Universities, led by B2E3 Institute for Efficient Architecture (Prof. Göran Pohl), the the Bauhaus-University Weimar (Prof. Dr. Jürgen Ruth), and the timber industry. The research focused on new techniques based on parametric architecture and their transfer potential towards traditional material and craftsmenship knowledge. BOWOOSS has been qualifying design tools of ancient manufacturing technologies that are able to follow modern computer de- mands. Generative formfinding and optimization methods have been used in order to implement CAD-results in the old techniques of „heavy“ timber industry as the result is a composition of volume and material, lightweight and space in one.
BOWOOSS research pavillon: methods and result
The building has been installed after a research period within the national BIONA-program on biomimicry in architecture. Studies on shells in nature have been compared, following the method „Pool Research“ (natural and tech- nical „techniques“ are structurized, classified and compared to focus on potentials of research). As result, the geometry of the building has been worked out in steps. Using evolutionary computer algorithms, the „individuals“ are mutated, selected and optimized, leading to the final solution. The architecture translates natural design into technical foldings, uses rip structures and hierarchical structures and presents volumetry in a sensitive manner.
Diatoms (single-cellular algae) of the species Synedrosphenia, Actinoptychus und Arachnodiscus are showing morphological specifications in their stable silicate envelopes. In computer calculations, their efficient load-bearing shell has been identified as combination of threedinensional ribs in combination with pore-like openings.
The research pavillon BOWOOSS focused on integrating his load-bearing structure within the envelope, thus, beeing emulated with high complexity, saving the ability to be fabricated with the use of simple tools. The structure is built by laminated timber struts which in statical sense form the primary and secondary structure and are permanently fixed to the hull. The hierarchical system is, as the biological ideal shows (actinoptychus and arachnodis- cus), multy-layered: surfaces with pores are following the primary and secondary ribs, which in biological principles may follow multiple layers. The complexe composite offers stability and enveloping hull in one. The organically formed ribs are made of 60-80mm laminated wood, per- manently fixed to the 30mm plywood foldings that give BOWOOSS a self stabilizing effect.
The hull filters natural lightning, offers ventilation and regulates visibility. The pore structures in the folding plates are designed using generative computer tools. The holes are put in parts of minimal structural loads. Oval-formed openings have been the results of maximizing them regar- ding statical needs and following tests of physical models. The pores are responsible for saving structural weights, which is remarked in low transportation and low instal- lation weight. The individual pores are non-contiuously curved as a method, that can be recognized on structures of load-changes in plants. In order to save all material, the cut-out oval plywood elements have been assembled to furniture.
The research on BOWOOSS results in a growth of pro- cessual knowledge of shell constructions in architecture, combining old craftsmenship technlogies and modern computer potentials. The possibilities of computer gene- ration are mostly promising geometries of high comple- xity, followed by mostly extraordinary problems of the work-out in the building industry and on site. One mayor aim of the resarch project was, to use the old tools and the broad knowledge of the draftsmen but to integrate the exactness and potential of computergenerated CAD data in the workflow. Industrial cutting machines and the craftsmen-workout should be put in action rather than CAM- driven robots or 5-axis-milling, as just very few spe- cialists firms coud follow these techniques. Generating the folding typology was driven out in regard to functionality and production technology. Data transfer has to be deve- lopped and tested starting from the threedimensional di- gital CAD-basis and translated towards flat sufaces, which represent the world of the craftsmens usage of planning and material. The prospective results and all production efforts have been discussed on the background of the aim of complex geometry, which has been alway kept in mind. Changings of constructions to optimize the produc- tion-flow have been influenced the planning and finally have been responsible for the cost-effective result. The simplification of the envelope towards flat surface-parts has been driving into the ability of repetitiveness. The connecting parts are worked out almost without using any steel parts. The demands of traditional craftmenship, the implementtion of modern CAD- technologies, the elemen- tation and installation-needs have been pushed towards
a re-thinking of 3D-planning, of production technology and the building on site, almost as Konrad Wachsmanns postulated in „Wendepunkte des Bauens“..
The development of BOWOOSS has, as result of the research on effective 3D-technologies connected the inspirations of biomimetics to generative methods and recovered new sources for parametric architecture. „Complex-formed buildings with linear techniques of craftsmenship“: the result is a composition of built space, a threedimensional, highly sensitive volume of architecture.
BOWOOSS has been realized within „BIONA“, a nationwide research program focusing on biomoimetics and sustainability, by the German ministery BMBF (Ministery of Education and Research).
HTW des Saarlandes
B2E3 Institute for effizient buildings at School for Architecture Saar, University Saarbruecken, Prof. Göran Pohl (head of project); Bauhaus- University Weimar, Prof. Dr. Jürgen Ruth; Fa. Stephan- Holzbau, AWI (Alfred- Wegener- Institute Bremerhaven), Pohl Archi- tekten, Abt. Leichtbauinstitut Jena, all Germany
L= ca. 16m, W= ca. 8m, H= ca. 4m
Laminated timber and plywood
2 days temporarily summer pavilon 2012